What do we mean by Grapheme and Phoneme?
A grapheme is a written symbol that represents a sound (phoneme). This can be a single letter, or could be a sequence of letters, such as ai, sh, igh, etc. So when a child says the sound /t/ this is a phoneme, but when they write the letter 't' this is a grapheme.
What do we mean by Phonic Phases?
We teach Phonics through a series of phases. Each phase has a set of graphemes for children to read and learn. Generally speaking, children in Year One will begin Phase 5 with opportunities to consolidate Phase 4 and Year Two will begin Phase 6. As we all know, this year will be a little different so children will be revisiting earlier phases to ensure they grasp graphemes they would normally look at and read.